- 60 traumas and pathologies divided between Willy and Debbie
- Can be positioned realistically
- Human technical factors
- Unlimited repetition of views without human exposure
- Radiographs that permit evaltuation of trainee performance
- Teaching/training for civilian hospital ER's
Design Principals for Radiographic Teaching/Training Phantoms
It is a universally-accepted fact of life that people cannot be subjected to diagnostic radiography for other than medically-necessary purposes. Observance of this principle rules out the use of patients for basic training in these procedures (but permitting the use of patients for advanced, supervised training).
The re-creation of the human body, in all of its immense complexity, represents overkill for radiographic training. One example of a widely-accepted divergence from precise reproduction of the human is the use of transparent phantoms to combine the teaching of radiography with that of anatomy.
Whichever philosophy is pursued, the basic qualifiers of human substitutes are phantoms that yield radiographs resembling those of the human, taken with human technical factors, articulated to enable basic views to be presented, and with an appropriate level of human anatomy.
A phantom is a “trade-off” between acceptable anatomic detail and unacceptable impact of artifacts on the image. WILLY and DEBBIE are based on several decades of experience with “trade-offs”, variously driven toward one extreme or another. They yield human-like images, with human technical factors and with limited artifacts, (which are presented clearly as artifacts, not as anatomic detail). They are well-balanced patient substitutes for basic training of radiologic technologists, particularly in military or emergency room environments.
Willy and Debbie Teaching/Training Capabilities
They demonstrate and evaluate positioning and imaging techniques, including kVp, mAs, contrast, optical density, OFD and TFD. Their radiographs are optically equivalent to humans in density and contrast.
WILLY AND DEBBIE DIFFERENCES:
The most obvious difference between them is in the complement of traumas and pathologies assigned to each.
Another difference is that DEBBIE has female breasts, while WILLY has natural male chest contours. DEBBIE is fitted with a wig, while WILLY is bald. They are dressed in camos for military training and in jumpsuits for civilian training.
Realism of Traumas and Pathologies
There is no single, unique description of any of their traumas and pathologies. Rather, there are limitless variations among a broad range of casualties. The most meaningful judgments of the realism of trauma and pathologies are those based on long radiographic experience across the spectrum of casualties.
The size and weight of PIXY are also used for WILLY and DEBBIE. They are small adults. Since technologists must learn to work with patients of all sizes and weights, a smaller phantom is as valid for training as a larger phantom, and position is facilitated. Each is 5 ft. 1 in. tall (156 cm) and weights 105 lbs (48 kg).
WILLY and DEBBIE are articulated at the neck, shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. Fractures of the left shoulder and left hip are located in DEBBIE. To minimize handling problems, all other traumas of the arms and legs are located in WILLY and on the right side of DEBBIE. The articulations provide a broad range of positioning of capabilities, even the “frog position”.
Lungs are molded of durable materials with radiodensities matched to humans in a median respiratory state. Animal lungs matching the human in size and blood vessels are available, but they are oriented towards research rather than training.
WILLY and DEBBIE have solid “soft tissues” that are hard and rigid. They cannot be palpated to locate traumas. However, radiological technologists are generally informed by the physician as to the views to be taken. The manual provides this information to instructors.
RSD-manufactured skeletons are used rather than natural human skeletons. The latter are generally unavailable and usually consist of an assortment of bones ranging from children to adults of ages for which osteoporosis becomes a factor.
RSD skeletons are not to be confused with plastic skeletons for teaching anatomy. RSD skeletons are made to fit the soft-tissue molds precisely. They have spongiosa moldings within marrow cavities and outer, cortical bone. Both constituents meet the internationally-accepted standards for radiodensity and specific gravity.
*More detailed information available upon Request. Wounded Willy and Damaged Betty also available separately.